Hoverflies are popular family of small to medium sized flies ( 4–25 mm). Their bright colours render some abundant genera relatively easy identified, often by field observation. There are however, very many species globally (approximately 6,200 species in 210 genera), many of economic importance as pollinators, but for which little is known about their biology. There are potentially hundreds of species awaiting scientific discovery and description. Besides the distinctive, often wasp-mimetic, colouration, the family is distinct in having a unique wing vein, called the spurious vein , which is a longitudinal vein-like thickening in the wing membrane between veins R and M (these are the major longitudinal veins of the wing).
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Whittington, A.E. 1994. Descriptions of the puparia of three Graptomyza species (Diptera:Syrphidae), with comments on probable larval biology. Tropical Zoology 7(1): 57-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.1994.10539240
Whittington, A.E. 1994. Distribution and conservation of Afrotropical Graptomyza Wiedemann, with a new species description (Diptera: Syrphidae: Volucellini). Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 716-733. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00126861
Whittington, A.E. & Rotheray, G.E. 1997. Afrotropical distribution and larval description of Ornidia obesa (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera; Syrphidae). Journal of African Zoology 111: 365-372.
Whittington, A.E. 1998. Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Vumba, Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, with description of a new species of Paragus. Annals of the Natal Museum 39: 185-198. https://journals.co.za/content/annals/39/1/AJA03040798_149
De Meyer, M., Vanden Berghe, E. & Whittington, A.E. 1999. Zoogeography and Biodiversity of Syrphidae (Diptera) in eastern Africa. Journal of East African Natural History 86 (1/2, 1997): 43-50.
Whittington, A.E. 2000. Syrphidae (Diptera; Aschiza) p.235-238. In: Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. & Marais, E. (eds). Dâures - biodiversity of the Brandberg Massif, Namibia. Cimbebasia Memoir 9 National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, 1-389.
Whittington, A.E. 2004. The Afrotropical Syrphidae Fauna: an assessment. Studia Dipterologica 10(2): 579-607. http://www.studia-dipt.de/con72.htm#con72a437